This chapter is available as a free PDF download.

Footnote Archive Home

Liars For Jesus Home


Chapter 2 - The Northwest Ordinance



1. Richard Peters, ed., The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America, vol. 1, (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1845), 52.

Document description:
The Northwest Ordinance (appearing as a footnote to An Act to provide for the Government of the Territory North-west of the river Ohio, August 7, 1789).

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Statutes at Large, vol. 1



2. Roscoe R.. Hill, ed., Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, vol. 33, (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1936), 428-429.

Document description:
Letter from the Ohio Company of Associates to the Continental Congress Board of Treasury regarding conditions of land purchase - July 26, 1787.

View Page Images:
Page 427
Page 428
Page 429

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Journals of the Continental Congress, vol. 33



3. Rev. A. P. Peabody, D.D., "Manasseh Cutler," New Englander and Yale Review, Vol. 46, No. 205, April 1887, 326-327.

Document description:
Magazine article containing a description of the evidence that Manasseh Cutler was the source of Article III of the Northwest Ordinance.

View Page Images:
Page 326
Page 327

Full volume available on the Cornell University Making of America website
New Englander and Yale Review, April 1887



4. Elizabeth H. Tetlow, "The Part of Massachusetts Men in the Ordinance of 1787," The New England Magazine, Vol. 18, No. 1, March 1895, 60.

Document description:
Magazine article containing a description of the evidence that Manasseh Cutler was the source of Article III of the Northwest Ordinance.

View page image

Full volume available on the Cornell University Making of America website
The New England Magazine, March 1895



5. Roscoe R.. Hill, ed., Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, vol. 32, (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1936), 318.

Note: There is a error in this footnote in the book. The footnote says volume 33. It should be volume 32.

Document description:
Initial wording of Article III of the Northwest Ordinance, showing what was omitted and/or changed in final version.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Journals of the Continental Congress, vol. 32



6. Richard Peters, ed., The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America, vol. 1, (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1845), 52.

Document description:
The Northwest Ordinance (appearing as a footnote to An Act to provide for the Government of the Territory North-west of the river Ohio, August 7, 1789).

View Page image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Statutes at Large, vol. 1



7. John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, vol. 28, (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1933), 293.

Document description:
Debate on land grants for public schools in the Ordinance for ascertaining the mode of disposing of Lands in the Western Territory - April 23, 1785.

View Page image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Journals of the Continental Congress, vol. 28



8. John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, vol. 28, (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1933), 301.

Document description:
Section of the Ordinance for ascertaining the mode of disposing of Lands in the Western Territory containing land grants for public schools - May 20, 1785.

View Page image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Journals of the Continental Congress, vol. 28



9. James Madison to James Monroe, May 29, 1785, Letters and Other Writings of James Madison, vol. 1, (New York: R. Worthington, 1884), 154.

Document description:
Letter from James Madison to James Monroe regarding the defeat of a proposal to include land grants for religious purposes in the Ordinance for ascertaining the mode of disposing of Lands in the Western Territory - May 29, 1785

View Page Images:
Title Page
Page 153
Page 154
Page 155



10. James Madison to James Monroe, May 29, 1785, Letters and Other Writings of James Madison, vol. 1, (New York: R. Worthington, 1884), 154.

Document description:
Letter from James Madison to James Monroe regarding the defeat of a proposal to include land grants for religious purposes in the Ordinance for ascertaining the mode of disposing of Lands in the Western Territory - May 29, 1785

View Page Images:
Title Page
Page 153
Page 154
Page 155



11. Richard Peters, ed., The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America, vol. 1, (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1845), 257-258.

Document description:
An act authorizing the grant and conveyance of certain Lands to the Ohio Company of Associates - April 21, 1792.

View Page Images:
Page 257
Page 258

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Statutes at Large, vol. 1



12. Walter Lowrie, ed., American State Papers, Public Lands, vol. 1, (Washington D.C.: Duff Green, 1834), 236-237.

Document description:
House committee report recommending that a request from the Ohio Company of Associates for land grants for religious purposes within their 1792 purchase be denied - January 17, 1806.

View Page Images:
Page 236
Page 237

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
American State Papers, Public Lands, vol. 1



13. Walter Lowrie, ed., American State Papers, Public Lands, vol. 2, (Washington D.C.: Duff Green, 1834), 220.

Document description:
House committee report recommending that a request for land grants for religious purposes in partial townships within Ohio Company of Associates 1787 purchase lacking the lot number designated for this purpose not be granted - February 6, 1811.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
American State Papers, Public Lands, vol. 2



14. The American's Guide: Comprising the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitutions of the Several States Composing the Union, (Philadelphia: Towar, J. & D. M. Hogan, 1830), 307.

Document description:
Religious freedom section from the 1802 constitution of Ohio.

View Page Images:
Title Page
Page 307



15. The American's Guide: Comprising the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitutions of the Several States Composing the Union, (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1864), 335.

Document description:
Religious freedom section from the 1851 constitution of Ohio.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Maryland State Archives website:
The American's Guide - 1864 edition



16. The American's Guide: Comprising the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitutions of the Several States Composing the Union, (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1864), 341.

Document description:
Prohibition of religious control of state school funds in the 1851 constitution of Ohio.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Maryland State Archives website:
The American's Guide - 1864 edition



17. The American's Guide: Comprising the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitutions of the Several States Composing the Union, (Philadelphia: Towar, J. & D. M. Hogan, 1830), 324-325.

Document description:
Education section from the 1816 constitution of Indiana.

View Page Images:
Title Page
Page 324
Page 325



18. The American's Own Book; or the Constitutions of the Several States in the Union; Embracing the Declaration of Independence; Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of Each State, with the Amendments and Much Other Matter of General Interest; from Authentic Documents, (New York: J.R. Bigelow, 1847), 444-445.

Document description:
Education section from the 1835 constitution of Michigan.

View Page Images:
Title Page
Page 444
Page 445



19. The American's Own Book; or the Constitutions of the Several States in the Union; Embracing the Declaration of Independence; Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of Each State, with the Amendments and Much Other Matter of General Interest; from Authentic Documents, (New York: J.R. Bigelow, 1847), 436.

Document description:
Prohibition of the use of state education funds for religious teachers or religious schools in the 1835 constitution of Michigan.

View Page Images:
Title Page
Page 436



20. The American's Guide: Comprising the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitutions of the Several States Composing the Union, (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1864), 539.

Document description:
Religious freedom section from the 1848 constitution of Wisconsin, including prohibition of public funding for religious schools.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Maryland State Archives website:
The American's Guide - 1864 edition



21. The American's Guide: Comprising the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitutions of the Several States Composing the Union, (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1864), 584.

Document description:
Education section from the 1857 constitution of Minnesota.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Maryland State Archives website:
The American's Guide - 1864 edition



22. Richard Peters, ed., The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America, vol. 1, (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1845), 123.

Document description:
An act for the Government of the Territory of the United States, south of the river Ohio - May 26, 1790.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Statutes at Large, vol. 1



23. Richard Peters, ed., The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America, vol. 1, (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1845), 549-550.

Document description:
An act for the amicable settlement of limits within the state of Georgia, and authorizing the establishment of a government in the Mississippi territory - April 7, 1798.

View Page Images:
Page 549
Page 550

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Statutes at Large, vol. 1



24. The American's Guide: Comprising the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitutions of the Several States Composing the Union, (Philadelphia: Towar, J. & D. M. Hogan, 1830), 400.

Document description:
Education section from the 1819 constitution of Alabama.

View Page Images:
Title Page
Page 400
Page 401



25. Richard Peters, ed., The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America, vol. 2, (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1845), 743.

Document description:
An act providing for the government of the territory of Missouri - June 4, 1812.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Statutes at Large, vol. 2



26. The American's Guide: Comprising the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitutions of the Several States Composing the Union, (Philadelphia: Towar, J. & D. M. Hogan, 1830), 417.

Document description:
Education section from the 1821 constitution of Missouri.

View Page Images:
Title Page
Page 417
Page 418



27. The American's Own Book; or the Constitutions of the Several States in the Union; Embracing the Declaration of Independence; Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of Each State, with the Amendments and Much Other Matter of General Interest; from Authentic Documents, (New York: J.R. Bigelow, 1847), 479.

Document description:
Education section from the 1836 constitution of Arkansas.

View Page Images:
Title Page
Page 479



28. The American's Guide: Comprising the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitutions of the Several States Composing the Union, (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1864), 626.

Document description:
Education section from the 1861 constitution of Kansas.

View Page Images:
Page 626
Page 627

Full volume available on the Maryland State Archives website:
The American's Guide - 1864 edition



29. The American's Guide: Comprising the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitutions of the Several States Composing the Union, (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1864), 627.

Document description:
Prohibition of the control of state education funds by religious sects in the 1861 constitution of Kansas.

View Page Images:
Page 626
Page 627

Full volume available on the Maryland State Archives website:
The American's Guide - 1864 edition



30. M.B.C. True, A Manual of the History and Civil Government of the State of Nebraska. Designed for the Use of the Schools of the State, (Boston and New York: Leach, Shewell, and Sanborn, 1885), 34.

Document description:
Education provision from the 1867 constitution of Nebraska.

Transcription of full volume available on the NEGenWeb Project Resource Center website:
A Manual of the History and Civil Government of the State of Nebraska



31. M.B.C. True, A Manual of the History and Civil Government of the State of Nebraska. Designed for the Use of the Schools of the State, (Boston and New York: Leach, Shewell, and Sanborn, 1885), 59.

Document description:
Education section from the 1875 constitution of Nebraska, including a prohibition of any sectarian education in public schools and a prohibition of the state accepting any private money or property to be used for sectarian purposes.

Transcription of full volume available on the NEGenWeb Project Resource Center website:
A Manual of the History and Civil Government of the State of Nebraska



32. M.B.C. True, A Manual of the History and Civil Government of the State of Nebraska. Designed for the Use of the Schools of the State, (Boston and New York: Leach, Shewell, and Sanborn, 1885), 34-35.

Document description:
Explanation of the Nebraska constitution's religious freedom provisions in a state approved 1885 textbook.

Transcription of full volume available on the NEGenWeb Project Resource Center website:
A Manual of the History and Civil Government of the State of Nebraska



33. Richard Peters, ed., The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America, vol. 1, (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1845), 52.

Document description:
Religious freedom provisions in the Northwest Ordinance.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Statutes at Large, vol. 1



34. The Debates and Proceedings of the Congress of the United States of America, vol. 11, 7th Cong., 1st Sess., (Washington D.C.: Gales & Seaton, 1851), 1099-1100.

Document description:
Recommendations of a House committee for the enabling act for the state of Ohio - March 30, 1802.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Debates and Proceedings, vol. 11, 7th Cong., 1st Sess.



35. Register of Debates in Congress, vol. 11, 23rd Cong., 2nd Sess., (Washington D.C.: Gales and Seaton, 1835), 1252.

Document description:
House debate on the relevance of the Northwest Ordinance in the border dispute between Michigan and Ohio - February 9, 1835.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Register of Debates, vol. 11, 23rd Cong., 2nd Sess.



36. Register of Debates in Congress, vol. 11, 23rd Cong., 2nd Sess., (Washington D.C.: Gales and Seaton, 1835), 1253-1254.

Document description:
House debate on the relevance of the Northwest Ordinance in the border dispute between Michigan and Ohio - February 9, 1835.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Register of Debates, vol. 11, 23rd Cong., 2nd Sess.



37. Register of Debates in Congress, vol. 11, 23rd Cong., 2nd Sess., (Washington D.C.: Gales and Seaton, 1835), 1255-1256.

Document description:
House debate on the relevance of the Northwest Ordinance in the border dispute between Michigan and Ohio - February 9, 1835.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Register of Debates, vol. 11, 23rd Cong., 2nd Sess.



38. Register of Debates in Congress, vol. 11, 23rd Cong., 2nd Sess., (Washington D.C.: Gales and Seaton, 1835), 1256.

Document description:
House debate on the relevance of the Northwest Ordinance in the border dispute between Michigan and Ohio - February 9, 1835.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Register of Debates, vol. 11, 23rd Cong., 2nd Sess.



39. Register of Debates in Congress, vol. 11, 23rd Cong., 2nd Sess., (Washington D.C.: Gales and Seaton, 1835), 1258.

Document description:
House debate on the relevance of the Northwest Ordinance in the border dispute between Michigan and Ohio - February 9, 1835.

View Page Image

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Register of Debates, vol. 11, 23rd Cong., 2nd Sess.



40. Richard Peters, ed., The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America, vol. 4, (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1846), 618-619.

Document description:
An act to authorize the legislature of the state of Ohio to sell the land reserved for the support of religion in the Ohio Company's and John Cleeves Symmes' purchases - February 20, 1833.

View Page Images:
Page 618
Page 619

Full volume available on the Library of Congress A Century of Lawmaking website:
Statutes at Large, vol. 4